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Mesopotamians have raised a powerful ass hybrid for the war, studies find

New Mesopotamian people have created ultra-strong hybrid animals by mating domestic and wild donkeys, new genomic sequence studies reveal.

Researchers in Paris have studied the genome from horse skeletons found at a 4,500-year-old burial site in Ummuelmala in the north. Syria..

The results suggest that the skeleton once belonged to a domesticated hybrid animal called “Kunga”. This is a hybrid of a female donkey and a male Syrian wild donkey.

According to experts, humans were not riding on Kungus. Rather, animals may have been used to transport supplies and equipment in combat and to pull tanks.

The size and speed of Kungus made these hybrid animals a better choice than donkeys for towing four-wheeled combat vehicles.

Kunga was produced by the Mesopotamian community in the historic region of West Asia 500 years before the arrival of domesticated horses in the region.

The Sumerians of southern Mesopotamia have been using carriages on the battlefield for centuries, as evidenced by the famous “Standard of Ur”, a Sumerian mosaic 4,500 years ago. Is already known.

Ummuel Mara (Northern Syria) is a burial facility for princes 4,500 years ago.Several horses were found on the site and buried in their own facility

The Sumerians of southern Mesopotamia have already used carriages on the battlefield for centuries, as evidenced by the famous

The Sumerians of southern Mesopotamia have already used carriages on the battlefield for centuries, as evidenced by the famous “Standard of Ur”, a Sumerian mosaic 4,500 years ago. I did.

What is KUNGAS?

Kungus was a “highly acclaimed” domesticated hybrid animal used for diplomacy, rituals and war in ancient Mesopotamia.

They were matings between female donkeys and male Syrian wild donkeys, new genomic analysis shows. They cost up to 6 times more than donkeys.

The large male Kungus was used to pull the “nobles and gods” vehicle.

The researchers said: “The exact taxonomic determination of Kunga and its distinction in archaeological records has been uncertain.”

The new study was carried out by a paleogeneticist at Institut Jacques Monod in Paris, France.

“Kungus was an F1 hybrid between a female domestic donkey and a male hemip. [Syrian wild ass]Therefore, we document the earliest evidence of hybrid animal breeding, “they say.

“The large men’s Kungus was used to tow the vehicles of the” nobles and gods. ” Its size and speed made it more desirable than a donkey for towing a four-wheeled combat vehicle. ”

Mesopotamia was a historic region of the Middle East that spanned most of what is now known as Iraq, but expanded to include parts of Syria and Turkey.

According to previous findings from the same research group, domestic horses in the region date back 4,000 years. Published in 2020, The new discovery of Kungas in the region dates back 4,500 years.

It is already known that 4,500-year-old clay tablets with a syllabary writing system called cuneiform call the first-class horses with high market value “Kunga”.

Ancient tablets and seals record that Kungus, which costs up to six times as much as a donkey, was deliberately bred in Mesopotamia in the early Bronze Age.

However, while one Kunga’s parent was thought likely to be a donkey, the identity of the other parent remained unknown.

Ancient panel

Ancient panel “Hunting wild donkeys” showing wild donkeys in Asia being captured (British Museum, London)

Mesopotamia was a historic region of the Middle East that spanned most of what is now known as Iraq, but expanded to include parts of Syria and Turkey.

Mesopotamia was a historic region of the Middle East that spanned most of what is now known as Iraq, but expanded to include parts of Syria and Turkey.

Shotgun sequencing

Experts combined shotgun nuclear DNA sequencing with sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

Shotgun sequencing divides the genome into a collection of small DNA fragments that are individually sequenced.

Computer programs look for duplicate DNA sequences and use them to place individual fragments in the correct order and reconstruct the genome.

Source: genome.gov

To find out more, researchers analyzed the complete skeletal genomes of 25 male hybrid horses from Ummuelmala to determine if the horses were Kungus and investigated their taxonomic origin. did.

Due to the very poor storage of DNA due to the hot Syrian climate, researchers combined shotgun nuclear DNA sequencing with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to combine mitochondrial DNA (to investigate the mother) and the Y chromosome (to investigate the mother). Targeted (to investigate the father).

Although degraded, the Kungus genome could be compared to other horse genomes – horses, domestic donkeys, and wild donkeys of the family Hemionaceae.

The latter includes the remains of a 11,000-year-old horse from the oldest known temple, Gobeklitepe (now southeast of Turkey), and the last surviving wild Syrian donkey that disappeared in the early 20th century. Includes two. It is preserved in the Museum of Natural History Vienna.

The results support the previous hypothesis that horses in burial grounds are hybrids and reveal a parent-child relationship in Kungus.

Analysis shows that Umm el Mara horses are first-generation hybrids resulting from domestic donkey-male hemione mating.

Enclosure D with T-shaped pillars in Gobeklitepe, southeast of present-day Turkey.This site contains the oldest known temple in the world

Enclosure D with T-shaped pillars in Gobeklitepe, southeast of present-day Turkey.This site contains the oldest known temple in the world

Since Kungus was sterile and the hemion was wild, it was necessary to mate a domesticated female with a previously captured hemion.

Rather than tame the wild horses that live in the area, the Sumerians produce and use hybrids, combine the qualities of their two parents, and are stronger and faster than donkeys (and much faster than horses). Produced (fast) offspring.

When imported from the Pontic-Caspian grasslands into the region, Kungus was eventually replaced by the arrival of easy-to-breed domestic horses.

Researchers Science Advances, May help clarify the scale of hybrid breeding in Mesopotamian societies in the 3rd millennium BC.

Mesopotamia is known as the “birthplace of civilization,” but why has it become so wonderful?

A historic region of the Middle East that spans most of what is now known as Iraq, but extends to include parts of Syria and Turkey.

The term “Mesopotamia” comes from the Greek word and means “between two rivers”.

The two rivers named are the Tigris and the Euphrates.

Unlike many other empires (such as Greeks and Romans), Mesopotamia was made up of several different cultures and groups.

Mesopotamia should be better understood as the region that gave birth to multiple empires and civilizations, rather than a single civilization.

Mesopotamia is known as the “birthplace of civilization” mainly for two developments. It is the invention of the “city” we know today and the invention of writing.

Mesopotamia is an ancient region of the Middle East, part of most of modern Iraq and other countries.They invented cities, wheels and agriculture, giving women almost equal rights.

Mesopotamia is an ancient region of the Middle East, part of most of modern Iraq and other countries.They invented cities, wheels and agriculture, giving women almost equal rights.

Considered responsible for many early developments, it is also trusted in the invention of the wheel.

They also cultivated vast lands and invented tools and weapons for the world’s first mass breeding of animals.

In addition to these practical developments, the region has seen the birth of wine, beer, and the boundaries of time to hours, minutes, and seconds.

The fertile land between the two rivers allowed hunter-gatherers to be comfortable, which is believed to have led to the agricultural revolution.

What was common throughout the region was the equal treatment of women.

Women enjoyed nearly equal rights, were able to own land, apply for divorce, own their own businesses and enter into trade contracts.

Mesopotamians have raised a powerful ass hybrid for the war, studies find

Source link Mesopotamians have raised a powerful ass hybrid for the war, studies find

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