Israeli archaeologists have identified the ruins of a Galilee crusade camp dating back to the 12th century. This is the first conclusive evidence of a wartime campsite used by Christian invaders in the sanctuary.
The Crusaders were a series of invasions of Levant by Christian Europeans who tried to rule the region from the Ayyubid Sultan Saladin in the 11th and 13th centuries.
Historical records prove their arrival, but as with many castles and churches they left behind, there is little evidence of the actual battle between these two medieval world powers.
However, preparatory excavations conducted prior to the expansion of National Highway 79, the road connecting Nazareth and the Mediterranean, revealed evidence that Frankish invaders opened wartime camps.
Archaeologists have unearthed hundreds of metal crafts, including coins, iron, and items used to care for horses, which represent at least temporary settlements during the Kingdom of Jerusalem from 1099 to 1291.
“It was a very special opportunity to study medieval camps and understand their material culture and archeology,” said Rafael Lewis, a researcher at the University of Haifa. Jerusalem Post..
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Archaeological excavations prior to the expansion of National Highway 79 (above), the road connecting Nazareth and the Mediterranean, reveal evidence that Frank’s invaders opened wartime camps at the Chippoli hot springs in Galilee. rice field.
Unlike the Romans, who scattered stone and wooden structures in the sanctuary, these camps were temporary by design, making it difficult for archaeologists to tell their story.
Using a field known as “artifact distribution analysis”, Luis, Nimrodgetsov and Ianil Millevsky of the Israeli Antiquities Department (IAA) have reconstructed the landscape that would have emerged in the 12th century.
‘Reviewed where the artifact was found. And we compared what we learned with historical records, “he told Post.
According to Lewis, given access to the sea, a 20-mile route has been used since prehistoric times, at which point there were both Muslim and Crusader campgrounds.
Archaeologists have unearthed hundreds of metal relics, including coins, iron (above), and many items used to care for horses. This represents a temporary Crusaders settlement between at least 1099 and 1291.
Some of the coins found on the scene appear to be dated after King Baldwin defeated his mother, Queen Regent Melisand of Jerusalem, in 1152.
It is not known when Christians first began to gather around spring, but historical records and archaeological evidence of their existence date back to the 1130s.
Some of the coins found on the scene date back to Roman times, but some appear to date after King Baldwin defeated his mother, Queen Regent Melisand of Jerusalem, in 1152.
According to historical records, about 20,000 Crusaders abandoned Chippoli’s camp on July 3, 1187 to support the besieged Tiberian allies.
They ran out of water and supplies and were decimated by Sultan Salahud’s army the next day on a hill above the village of Ḥaṭṭīn.
Tzippori (above) was a strategic location for the Crusader camp because of its access to water and resources, and the proximity of the Sea of Galilee to both the Mediterranean and Tiberias.
The Battle of Hattin showed that Saladin had completely annihilated the Crusaders. Britannica Encyclopedia, And in October 1187, Muslim troops paved the way for the recapture of Jerusalem.
Coupled with the conquest of Saladin, the Crusader States of Tripoli and Antioch, it essentially nullified the interests made by the invading Christians and prompted the Third Crusade, which lasted from 1189 to 1192.
The Crusaders technically all fought under the banner of King Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem, but they came from different regions and were part of different factions, such as the Knights Templar and the Hospitalier.
The Crusaders were a series of holy wars initiated by European Christians to recapture Jerusalem from the Islamic army. Their churches and castles are well known, but little evidence of the actual battlefield has been found so far.
According to archaeologists, they would have had individual camps with a unique material culture.
This particular bivouac was probably led by King Frank, who stakes a mound overlooking the fountain.
In addition to bridles, harness accessories, curry coms, and horseshoes, horseshoe-shaped nails made up the majority of the relics found by researchers.
“We see an interesting pattern similar to modern military camps,” Lewis said. Haaretz..
“The guys are waiting for the fight, while boring, scary and annoying. In short, it’s a dangerous situation, and the last thing their commanders want to do with them is to have time to think. is.
“And at Tzippori, the main activity seems to have been to replace broken horseshoe-shaped nails. It was beyond the work of making for itself.”
Their nail styles were very different, some resembling local styles, and more typical of sophisticated European designs were near the fountain itself.
“We can probably guess those who belonged to higher socio-economic status camp by spring,” Lewis told Post.
“Changing those nails probably represented the camp’s main activity. No one wanted to find himself in the fight against a horse with broken shoes.”
Harlets reported that they also found a large number of “aristocratic relics,” such as hairpins and golden buckles, manufactured in European style and likely to be used by knights and other elites. There is little evidence of such daily life.
Archaeologists believe that the more substantive ones were quickly packed and returned to a permanent fortress.
“I’m intrigued by a better understanding of the Crusader camp,” Lewis said. “I believe that the study of military camps has the potential to enable us to better understand the times and their culture.”
The findings were first published earlier this year as part of the 13th-century book “Reconciliation and the Crusaders.”
Just last week, the ancient sword discovered by scuba divers off Haifa was determined to belong to the Crusaders, who may have fallen into the sea 900 years ago.
The sword found off Haifa is believed to have been thrown into the sea by the Crusaders at some point in the 12th century.
A pair of mass graves with dozens of decapitated 13th-century crusades excavated in Lebanon
Despite being studded with rust and marine life, the handle and handle of a three-foot-long weapon are noticed by amateur divers after the undercurrent clearly shifts the sand that has hidden it for almost a thousand years. Was unique enough to
During September Mass grave containing 25 crusades Those slaughtered in the 13th century were excavated in Sidon, Lebanon.
Bone wounds suggest that the soldier died at the tip of a sword, mace, or arrow, but some burnt bones mean that he was burned after being dropped into the pit.
Other bodies show markings on the neck. This probably means that these individuals were captured on the battlefield and later beheaded.
According to historical records written by the Crusaders, Sidon was attacked by the Mamluk army in 1253, destroyed again by the Mongolians in 1260, and soldiers found in the mass grave may have died in one of these battles. there is.
What was the Crusaders?
The Crusaders were a series of religious wars fought between 1095 and 1291, with Christian invaders trying to claim the Near East.
It is known that the aristocrats led the Crusaders, but historical records lack details of ordinary soldiers who traveled, lived, and died in the Near East.
Pope Urban II launched the First Crusade (1096-1102) to support the Christian Byzantine Empire, which was under attack by the Muslim Seljuk Turks.
As a result, Europeans occupied Jerusalem in 1099, and Muslims quickly united against the Christian invasion.
By 1291 Muslims ruled Jerusalem firmly, which remained in Islamic hands until the 20th century.
The Crusaders set the stage for several religious orders, including the Knights Templar, the Teutonic Order, and the Hospitalers.
These groups protected the sanctuary and protected pilgrims traveling to and from the area.
The Crusaders were a series of religious wars fought between 1095 and 1291, with Christian invaders trying to claim the Near East. It is known that the aristocrats led the Crusaders, but historical records lack details of ordinary soldiers (file photo).
First evidence of a wartime campsite used by the Crusaders to invade the sanctuary was found in Israel
SourceFirst evidence of a wartime campsite used by the Crusaders to invade the sanctuary was found in Israel