MI6, a British foreign intelligence agency, defeated Iran’s first democratically elected Prime Minister, Mohammad Mosadev, in 1953 with the help of the CIA. They replaced him with Shah, a dictator protected by his infamous secret police, Savak.
A few years later, MI6 colluded with the CIA to defeat and even assassinate Congo’s first democratically elected Prime Minister, Patrice Lumumba.
“Lumumba, like Lumumba, was democratically elected and a defender of the secular unity of his country,” academic Dr. Susan Williams wrote in her new book. White Maris, CIA, MI6, Belgium (formerly colonial ruler of Congo) a devastating and well-studied report on how it destroyed the legitimate government of a newly independent country.
Lumumba was the victim of a long and vicious campaign to damage his credibility before being captured, tortured and assassinated in January 1961.
The MI6 file regarding its role in the events leading to his murder remains suppressed. Many are almost certainly destroyed. The CIA is still withholding the file, but the documentation on the plot has been released in the United States.
White Maris Publish a network of CIA agents and their luxury bribe beneficiaries. They included Joseph Desire Mobutu, the head of the Congolese army, who played an important role in the coup against Rumba.
Mobutu (later called Mobutu Sese Seko and his country Zaire) seized power in a CIA-sponsored coup in 1965 and ruled Congo until his death in 1997.
There is no doubt that Daphna Park, Congolese’s MI6 station chief, was maintained under the cover of the British Embassy’s consular officer. Enough information Of the CIA’s dirty work, including plans to poison Rumba. She was very close to CIA Director Larry Devlin.
Williams points out two different allegations that Park made about the murder of Roomba. Asked who killed him in 1989 interview When New Yorker Magazine, she replied: “Of course, the CIA.” Then in 2013, the Lord Lee, Fellow fellow (Park was noble) Said He asked her if MI6 had anything to do with the killing and claimed she had answered. I organized it. “
Williams commented: “At first glance, these two responses seem inconsistent, but perhaps both have the truth.” Importantly, Park “sees her work at MI6 as an intervention, not just information gathering.” I did. ”
On BBC Panorama TV interview On November 22, 1992, Park admitted, “You have made people cautiously hostile to each other … they destroy each other and we do not destroy them.” It was very easy in the new and independent Congo.
Williams ensures that Howard Smith of the Foreign Ministry’s African Affairs Bureau will remove Lumumba from the scene in September 1960, the day after the then British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan discussed Lumumba’s “troublesome activity” with President Eisenhower. He records that he told a colleague an easy way. “I killed him.”
Smith later became responsible for MI5.
Lumumba was executed on January 17, 1961 by the mineral-rich Congolese army in Katanga, ruled by Moise Tshombe. Belgian police chief Frans Vrescheure was probably the last Westerner to see Lumumba alive.
Paddy Hayes, author Spy queen, Put it like this of him biography Park: “Neither the park nor Devlin has triggered and ordered the firing squad, but they bring the situation that the most logical and in fact the only possible result is the death of Patrice Lumumba. Collusion for. “
The role of the British government was not just to passively close its eyes. It was more than just a collusion. British officials actively encouraged Rumba’s enemies to drive him away. This is quite clear from Williams’ book.
British and US intelligence and rumba opponents had another willing accomplice. General Henry Alexander seconded from the British Army to head the defense staff of Kwame Nkrumah, the first president of Ghana.
Alexander was also the head of a large Ghanaian delegation to the United Nations peacekeeping forces in Congo. He and his fellow British officer, who appear to be serving the United Nations, had many opportunities to save Lumumba from his pursuers, but refused to do so.
“Century intelligence coup”
The unanswered question also surrounds the death of then-UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjold, who was a strong supporter of Lumumba as a legitimate government leader in Congo.
Williams explains how the CIA not only bribed foreign delegations at the United Nations, but also regularly intercepted encrypted communications of UN personnel. They did so with the help of machines manufactured by the Swiss-based company CryptoAG, which is secretly owned by the CIA and the West German foreign intelligence agency BND.
At least four countries, the United Kingdom, Israel, Sweden and Switzerland, were aware of an operation described by the CIA as a “century intelligence coup” and were given the intelligence obtained from it.
When Katharine Gun, a translator of GCHQ, exposed US demands to Britain for bug communications at the United Nations, there was a reaction to the operation long after the preparatory stage for the invasion of Iraq.
Hammarskjold, traveling with two CX-52 Crypto AG machines, was killed on the night of September 17-18, 1961, when a plane crashed in Northern Rhodesia (later Zambia), not far from the Congo border. it was done.United Nations Survey Caused by Williams’ Previous Survey Book, Not completed yet.
Williams writes: “Communications sent by Hammarskjold’s CX-52 cryptographic machine appear to have been intercepted by UK and US signaling and intelligence agencies as a result of confidential interception and decryption settings.”
Commander Charles Sausor, a U.S. intelligence officer at the GCHQ Listening Station in Cyprus, explained how he heard a recording of a supposed Belgian mercenary pilot’s commentary as evidence of a previous investigation into the crash. Shot down Hammarskjold’s DC-6.
Sausole said in his view that the CIA unit was responsible for shooting down the plane.
Williams cites a document from a South African organization linked to mercenaries investigated by the South African Truth Commission. She writes: “One of the documents states that CIA Director Allen Dulles has promised full cooperation with Operation Celeste, which plans to kill Hammarskjold.Lumumba’s murder is mentioned as follows:’I hope his removal is processed more efficiently than Patrice [Lumumba]’. “
The CIA (and the British intelligence agency) then turned its attention to polluting and destabilizing the Nkrumah with the help of the Information Research Department, a secret publicity unit of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Ghana’s charismatic president and Rumba’s influential supporters also decided to keep the distance from the west, which he correctly suspected.
Williams states that the British High Commissioner for Accra said: “It is in Britain’s interest for Nkrumah to cease control of Ghana.”
In 1966, Nkrumah was defeated in a military coup called “Operation Old Chop”. Many of the major conspirators were in the UN delegation in Ghana, Congo, led by General Alexander.
Williams describes the scope of the institution’s network established by the CIA to train the elite and youth in the United Kingdom, the United States, and Africa. They included the Congress for Cultural Freedom, the American Institute for African Studies, and the American African Cultural Association.
Part of the pattern
With its stunning historical research White Maris It should be read by all students and their leaders of the CIA and the African Independence Movement, especially those studying Congo and West Africa.
However, MI6 was also active elsewhere in Africa.One of the ignored books Road to Zimbabwe, By Anthony Verrier. Verrier, who had a very good relationship with MI6, explains how British intelligence has taken a rather subtle approach to emerging African leaders in southern and East Africa.
For the CIA, they were pro-Western or communist sympathizers, but MI6 encouraged what they considered to be potentially “moderate” nationalist leaders. “The virtual recruitment of Muboya, Nierele, Banda, Kaunda, and Nyerere” by MI6 was “due to excellent information about the types of organizations they actually or future led,” says Berrier.
Tom Mboya was the leader of the Kenyan trade union and later minister. Julius Nyerere became the first president of Tanzania. Hastings Banda became Prime Minister and later President of Malawi. Kenneth Kaunda was the first president of Zambia and Joshua Nkomo was the vice president of Zimbabwe.
They were all “recipients” of the funds secretly provided by MI6, says Verrier. DM
Richard Norton Taylor ParentsDefense correspondent and its security editor have been authors of several books for 30 years, and more recently. Secret state..
Declassified UK Is an investigative journalism agency investigating Britain’s role in the world.
Did Britain Help Kill Afr …
SourceDid Britain Help Kill Afr …